Education commences ai the mothers knee, and every word spoken within the hear¬ ing of little children tends towards the formation of character Ballou

Knowledge Is of two kinds. (s)e know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it.

Samuel Johnson KmSffiSS232SJa5S2S2^iHSaffi23SE






A New and Thoroughly Modern Reference Work Designed to Meet the Needs of Every Age



Associate Editor New Practical Reference Library; Author Cyclopedia of Civil Government



Author , and Former Chief Inspector of Schools, Toronto

Exlfttutatt {Edition









Copyright, 1923


Printed in U. S. A.

OCT 16 *24


Editor in Chief


Editor The World Booh; Author Cyclopedia of Civil Government.

Editor for Canada


Author , Former Chief Inspector of Schools, Toronto , and Supervisor of Practice

Teaching , Toronto University.



Principal, State Normal School, Worcester, Massachusetts; Former Professor of Education, New York State

Normal School, Albany, New York.


Author, Augsburg's Drawing, Oakland, California.


Formerly Instructor in Mathematics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.


Dean, Graduate School, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. Member, Kansas Historical Society, and

American Economic Association.


Superintendent, City Schools, Ottumwa, Iowa.


Professor, Department of Commerce and Industry, Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College,

Agricultural College, Mississippi.


Superintendent, City Schools, Kansas City, Missouri.


Former United States Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C.; Superintendent, City Schools, Tulsa,



President, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Former Professor of Education, University of

Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.


Assistant Superintendent of Schools, State of California, Sacramento, California.


Former Commissioner of Education, North Dakota; President of University of Montana, Missoula,

Montana. *



Professor of History, U niversity of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.


Late Associate Superintendent of Schools, New York City; Lecturer on School Administration in Summer

Schools of Columbia, Yale and New York Universities.


Former State Superintendent of Schools of Indiana, Indianapolis, Indiana.


City Superintendent of Schools, Augusta, Georgia; Member Faculty, Summer School of the South, Knoxville,

Tennessee; Lecturer on School Supervision.


President State Normal School, Normal, Illinois; former Member Illinois State Educational Commission.


President Ferris Institute, Big Rapids, Michigan; Governor of Michigan, 1913-1914- and 1915-1916.


President, U niversity of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas.


Professor of Psychology, Nebraska Wesleyan University; Former Head of Department of Psychology, State Normal School, Peru, Nebraska. Member American School Hygiene Association.


Department of Mathematics, University College, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.


Former Head of Kindergarten Department, Chicago Teachers' College, Chicago, Illinois.


President, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida; Member, American Academy of Political and Social



Consul-General, Great Britain, Chicago, Illinois.


Former Kindergarten Instructor, Philadelphia Normal School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and in

Teachers' College, New York City.


Professor of Psychology and Education, Dean of the Extension College, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado; former Member of City and County Board of Education, Denver.


Late Superintendent, City Schools, Birmingham, Alabama.


President Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pennsylvania; Member, Executive Council American Historical Association, and of the Pennsylvania State Board of Agriculture, and Director of Pennsylvania

State Chamber of Commerce.


Member Faculty, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio; Editor “Ohio Teacher ”, Columbus, Ohio.


THE AMERICAN EDUCATOR has been made particularly for the millions of boys and girls in school and home and also for those whose interest in the education of young people is a vital element in their lives. The editors and publishers were guided in its preparation by the rich experience of years gained in contact with its predecessor, which for a decade had upheld a new standard of ex¬ cellence for works of its kind; and through which in far greater degree than ever before the necessities of young students had been recognized and met.

It may be stated with emphasis that THE AMERICAN EDU¬ CATOR is a new production. The vtorld upheaval, from 1914 to 1919, wiped out thousands of long-established facts, and in their places im¬ posed other stubborn realities whose prompt recognition was impera¬ tive. Merely to revise a reference work in the face of such tremendous new currents of events and thought was found impossible, unless thoroughness and adequacy of treatment were to be sacrificed. A new world emerging from the stress of war which came close to con¬ suming the entire economic structure of the strongest nations could not be portrayed in the same space that had hitherto been sufficient.

An entirely new reference work was thus forced into being, but we well knew that its prompt acceptance by the people could be assured only if it mirrored the excellent features which had made its predecessor the outstanding work of its kind. Therefore, in presenting THE AMERICAN EDUCATOR, the editors and publishers offer a com¬ pletely remodelled set of books, rewritten from the original text, enlarged to meet new demands, and with new plans and devices helpful alike to pupils, parents and teachers. While intended primarily for these particular groups, THE AMERICAN EDUCATOR will be found of inestimable value to those bus}^ people in every occupation who desire concise and direct information not easily accessible elsewhere.

Accuracy, balance, convenience and clearness are essential charac¬ teristics of a reliable reference work; the editors feel that the text of these volumes conforms in a notable degree to these requirements. To secure balance and accuracy, the work was divided into over forty departments, such as geography, pedagogy and education, biography and history. These departments were given to qualified editors, who

worked under careful supervision and who finally brought together the thousands of articles which they had written and adjusted them in harmony with the proportions of the work. The editors have not relied solely upon their own experience and judgment, but have had the advice and assistance of business men and educators from every state in the Union. The latest information has been secured through letters addressed to prominent persons in important towns and cities. The state articles have been reviewed by notable persons possessing full information concerning their own states. Statistics have been compiled from the very latest reports, provided they had the merit of strict reliability, and the narrative of events is brought to the eve of publication.

The department of pedagogy and education has been wrought out more fully than was ever before attempted in any work of this kind, and consists of practical articles on psychology, the history of education and methods of teaching; information concerning important univer¬ sities, colleges and other educational institutions; brief accounts of educational systems in states and countries, and a large number of biographies of men who are prominent in educational affairs. Geog¬ raphy is the largest department, but others, such as natural history, law and politics, art, literature, music and mechanic arts, have been given space and consideration adequate to their great demands.

The language is direct and simple, technicalities of all sorts have been studiously avoided, and it is felt that almost any child can read an article and understand its contents. Nevertheless, scientific ac¬ curacy has not been sacrificed.

To make the work convenient in use, the long articles have been divided by conspicuous subheads. Moreover, the greatest care has been taken to arrange material under the most common and appropriate headings; in other words, to place it in the spot where it will be oftenest sought. At the same time references are made to it from all other related articles. This system of cross-references binds together, also, the material of every department, and enables the reader to find quickly anything related to the subject he seeks. The complete index at the end of the last volume leads to every impor¬ tant fact referred to in the entire work. By following the references one is led into broad courses of systematic reading.

The publishers have admirably embellished the work with the finest multi-colored illustrations, new engraved colored maps and vivid relief maps of the continents; choice full-page, colored halftones ; new and correct pen and ink portraits, and more than eighteen hundred

other pictures. As all have been selected primarily for the important purpose of clarifying and broadening the text, they form an integral part of the work.

In appearance, the volumes are a notable improvement upon other works of reference of similar size, and in one respect are unique, namely, in the use of large, clear type. In a large encyclopedia that is rarely consulted, and then only for brief moments, one might possibly justify all articles in small type, but a useful book for daily reference by young students and busy people should make no unnecessary demands on the eyesight, or waste valuable time with crowded lines.

The editors have felt the responsibility which has rested upon them, and they have spared no effort to make THE AMERICAN EDUCATOR a work of value to inquirers of all classes, a work that scholars will appreciate.

E. D. F.


The pronunciation of titles is indicated by accenting the word or by respelling it phonetically in 'italics. In the phonetic spelling, letters are used to indicate the sounds which they most commonly represent.

A vowel is short when followed by a consonant in the same syllable, unless the syllable ends in silent e.

A vowel is long when standing alone or in a sjdlable which ends in silent e or when ending an accented syllable.

S is always soft, and never has the sound of z.

The foreign sounds which have no equivalent in the English language are represented as follows:

K for the German ch, as in Bach : (Bach, baK).

N for the French n, as in Breton: (Breton, bretoN').

o for the German o, as in Gottingen : (Gottingen, go' ting en).

ii for the German ii, as in Blucher: (Blucher, bliiK'ur).

A, the first letter in almost all alphabets. In its primary sound, that of a in father, it is the purest of the vowels and is pro¬ duced with the entire vocal channel in the most open position possible. Most modern languages, as French, Italian and German, have only one sound for a, namely, that heard in father, but in English this letter is made to represent eight sounds, as in the words father , mat , mate, mare, final, ball, what and ask , besides being used in such digraphs as ea in heat and oa in boat. For other details, see the article Orthography.

A, in music, is the sixth note in the dia¬ tonic scale of C, and when in perfect tune stands to the latter note in the ratio of % to 1 (see Music). The second string of the violin is tuned to this note.

Al, Aal and AA1, used as symbols by Dun, Bradstreet and other financial agencies to indicate a high rating. A after a firm’s name means resources of $500,000 to $750,- 000; Aa means $750,000 to $1,000,000; AA means over $1,000,000. The numeral 1 shows that the credit rating is of the best. In popular usage the expression Al has come to mean excellence of any kind.

AACHEN, ah' ken, the German name for Aix-la-Chapelle (which see).

AARD-VARK, ahrd vahrk, an ant-eater found in South Africa. It is a stout ani-


mal, with long piglike snout, tubular mouth, the usual termite-catching tongue, large

ears, fleshy tail and short, bristly hair. The limbs are short and very muscular; on the fore feet are four, on the hind five, power¬ ful claws, used in burrowing and in exca¬ vating the hills of the white ants on which it feeds. It is nocturnal in its habits and is very inoffensive and timid. When pur¬ sued, it can burrow itself out of sight in a few minutes, working inward with such rapidity as to make it almost impossible to dig it out. Its total length is about five feet, of which the tail is about one foot nine inches. Its dwelling is a burrow at a little distance from the surface, and thence it may be observed creeping at dusk. The flesh is considered a delicacy by the natives.

AARD-WOLF, a South African car¬ nivorous animal, foxlike in size and habit, but having longer ears and a less bushy tail. It resembles a hyena in its sloping back and in its color, the body being gray, irreg¬ ularly striped with black, but it has five toes on the fore feet, and the head is much more pointed and civetlike. It feeds on carrion, white ants and the like, but not on living vertebrates. It is timid and nocturnal in its habits, social but quarrelsome in its life, and tolerably swift in its pace, though usually trusting rather to burrowing than to flight.

AARON, ar'un, the elder brother of Moses, always second to him in command, but the first and one of the greatest of the Israelitish high priests. He acted as spokes¬ man for Moses when the latter delivered the Israelites from the Egyptians, and he was one of the leaders of the nation in its wan¬ derings. When Moses was on Mount Sinai, Aaron made the golden calf which the Israelites worshiped. Aaron was not allowed to enter Canaan, but died and was buried on Mount Hor. See Ex. XXIX ; Num. XVI and XX, 8-13.







n n

J v

DO— 1




0— G








AB'ACUS, a calculating machine used in teaching the elements of number. It consists of a rectangular frame which holds parallel rods upon which beads or balls are strung.

A handle is at¬ tached to the lower side of the frame, so that when the abacus is in use the rods are held in a hori¬ zontal position.

The ancient abacus con¬ tained vertical columns which corresponded to the order of figures, as units, tens and hun¬ dreds. This instrument was in general use among the Greeks and Romans, and is still employed in Persia and other countries of the Far East for reckoning purposes. The Chinese abacus is called shwanpan, which means reckoning board.

ABALO'NE, or EAR SHELL, a Cali¬ fornian mollusk, of which there are several species. The shell is a very broad spiral that resembles a shallow dish lined with bright mother-of-pearl, and has considerable commercial value. The animal, which moves about over rocks at the bottom of the sea near the shore, is an important article of food for the Chinese and other Oriental peoples. Quantities are collected and dried on the California shore. The people of that state use large numbers, and the rest are exported.

AB'BEY, a monastery or religious com¬ munity governed by an abbot ; or in the case of a female community, by an abbess. The difference between a priory and an abbey is that the former is a less extensive establish¬ ment and is governed by a prior. Among the most famous abbeys in Europe are those of Cluny and Clairvaux in France, the Abbey of Saint Galle in Switzerland, and Fulda in Germany. Among the famous English abbeys are those of Westminster, Tintem, Paisley and Saint Mary’s of York. At the time of the Reformation the abbeys in England were destroyed by Henry VIII.

ABBEY, Edwin Austin (1852-1911), an American painter, born in Philadelphia. He studied in the United States, but lived in England after 1881. A series of canvases entitled The Quest of the Holy Grail, in the Boston Public Library, and a group of his¬ torical paintings in the Pennsylvania state capitol are his most noteworthy productions. As a colorist and intellectual painter, Abbey ranks among the foremost American artists.

AB'BOT, a prelate of high rank in the Roman Catholic Church, who governs a con¬ vent or monastery. The first abbots were laymen, but priestly abbots appeared in the Western Church in the seventeenth century and have continued to the present day. Their powers were at first limited, but as the abbeys grew in wealth the abbots grew in power, until they came to be ranked next to bishops as prelates of the Church and had the right to vote in Church councils. Abbots are elected by the assembly of monks, and the election is confirmed by the Pope or the bishop, who has direct control over the mon¬ astery. See Abbey.

Abbess, the mother superior of a com¬ munity of nuns. In rank and authority she corresponds to an abbot, but she cannot ex¬ ercise any of the priestly functions.

AB'BOTSFORD, the former country seat of Sir Walter Scott, on the south bank of the Tweed, near Melrose Abbey, twenty- eight miles southeast of Edinburgh, Scot¬ land. In 1811 it was purchased by Scott


and given its name because it was located near a ford which was formerly used by the abbots of Melrose. It stands in the midst of picturesque scenery, forming an extensive and irregular pile in the Scottish baronial style of architecture. It has been appro¬ priately described as a “romance in stone.”

ABBOTT, Jacob (1803-1879), a popular American writer of books for the young.




He was a teacher and subsequently a clergyman, but after 1839 he devoted him¬ self entirely to writing. Of his two hun¬ dred volumes, the best-known are the Hollo Books and the Franconia Stories. He also wrote numerous biographies for children.

ABBOTT, John Joseph Caldwell, Sir (1821-1893), a Canadian statesman, bom at St. Andrew’s, Quebec. He was educated at McGill University, where later he became dean of the faculty of law and one of the governors. His first appearance in public life was in 1857, when he contested the representation of his native county of Argenteuil ; after an investigation that lasted two years he obtained the seat and was successively reelected till 1874. In 1862, as solicitor-general, he introduced the use of stamps in the payment of judicial and registration fees in Lower Canada, he remodeled the jury law, and he drafted and carried through parliament an insolvency act which is the basis of Canadian law to¬ day. From 1887 to 1889 he was mayor of Montreal and at the same time a member of the Dominion Senate. In the Cabinet of Sir John Macdonald he became a member with¬ out portfolio, and after Macdonald’s death in 1891 became premier. Old age and the cares of office overburdened him, however, so that he resigned on December 5, 1892. (For portrait, see illustration facing article Pre¬ mier.)

ABBOTT, Lyman (1835-1922), an Ameri¬ can clergyman and editor, widely known as the editorial head of The Outlook. He is the son of J acob Abbott, and was bom in Massa¬ chusetts. He was graduated at the University of New York in 1853 and was admitted to the bar. Later he studied theology, and was ordained in the Congrega¬ tional Church in 1860. For five years he preached in Terre Haute, Ind., and afterward was pas¬ tor of the New England Church in New York City, but resigned in 1869. Dr. Abbott edited the “Literary Record” of Harper's Magazine and the Illustrated Christian

Weekly, and was associated with Rev. Henry Ward Beecher on the Christian Union, after¬ ward becoming editor in chief. In 1889 he became pastor of Plymouth Church, Brook¬ lyn, where he remained for ten years. In 1893 he became editor in chief of The Out¬ look, the successor of the Christian Union, and he did much to give that periodical its distinguished place among American jour¬ nals. Dr. Abbott wrote a Life of Henry Ward Beecher and edited Beecher’s sermons. Beminiscences appeared in 1915; Silhouettes of My Contemporaries in 1921.

ABBREVIATIONS, shortened forms of words, or of arbitrary signs or symbols sub¬ stituted for words. The most common method of abbreviating is the substitution of the ini¬ tial letter for the word itself, but one or more letters are often added to prevent ambiguity. Abbreviations were in common use among the Greeks and Romans, and in the manu¬ scripts of the Middle Ages they were so numerous as to render some works exceeding¬ ly difficult to read. Even after printing was invented, the excessive use of abbreviations continued for a time.

The following brief list contains many of those abbreviations that are not easily recog nized :

A. B. Artium Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Arts.

A. D. Anno Domini, in the year of the Lord.

ad lib. ad libitum, at pleasure.

Ala. Alabama.

Alas. Alaska.

A. M. Ante meridiem, before noon; Ars Magister, Master of Arts.

Ari. Arizona.

Ark. Arkansas.

Ave. Avenue.

B. A. Baccalaureus Artium, Bachelor of Arts.

B. C. Before Christ; British Columbia.

B. D. Baccalaureus Divinitatis, Bachelor of Divinity.

B. M. Baccalaureus Medicinae, Bachelor of Medicine.

B. S. Bachelor in the Sciences.

B. V. Beata Virgo, Blessed Virgin; Bene vale, farewell.

B. Y. P. U. Baptist Young People’s Union.

Calif. California.

C. E. Civil Engineer.

C. J. Chief Justice.

C. M. Common meter.

C. O. D. Cash (or collect) on delivery.

Col. or Colo. Colorado.

Con. Contra, against, in opposition.

Conn, or Ct. Connecticut.

Cf. Confer, Compare.

Cr. Credit, creditor.




C. S. A. Confederate States of America; Confederate States Army.

Ct. Connecticut; court.

Dak. Dakota.

D. C. Da Capo, from the beginning- in music it means repeat; District of Colum¬ bia.

D. D. Divinitatis Doctor, Doctor of Divin¬ ity.

Dec. December; declination.

Deg. Degree; degrees.

Del. Delaware; delegate; delineavit, he (or she) drew it.

Dept, or Dpt. Department, do. Ditto, the same.

D. P. Doctor Philosophiae, Doctor of Phi¬ losophy.

Dr. Debtor; doctor; drachms.

D. Sc. Doctor of Science.

D. V. Deo volente, God willing.

E. East.

E. G. Exempli gratia, for example.

Esq. Esquire, et al. Et alii, and others, etc. or &c. Et cetera, and others, and so forth.

et seq. Et sequentes, et sequentia, and what follows.

Fahr. or F. Fahrenheit.

Fla. Florida.

f. o. b. Free on board.

Fol. Folio.

Ga. Georgia.

G. A. It. Grand Army of the Republic.

G. B. Great Britain.

Gov. Gen. Governor General.

G. P. O. General Post-office.

H. I. Hawaiian Islands.

H. J. S. Hie jacet sepultus, here lies bur¬ ied.

la. Iowa.

lb. or ibid. Ibidem, in the same place.

Ida. Idaho.

i. e. Id est, that is.

Ill. Illinois.

Ind. Indiana, index.

Inst. Instante mense, this month.

I. O. U. I owe you.

Jr. Junior.

Kan. Kansas.

K. C. B. Knight Commander of the Bath. Ky. Kentucky.

La. Louisiana.

Lat. Latitude.

lb. or lbs. Libra or librae, pound or pounds in weight.

L. I. Long Island.

Lieut, or Lt. Lieutenant.

LL. B. Legum Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Laws.

LL. D. Legum Doctor, Doctor of Laws.

LL. M. Legum Magister, Master of Laws.

M. A. Master of Arts; Military Academy. Mass. Massachusetts.

M. B. Medicinae Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Medicine; Musicae Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Music.

M. C. Member of Congress ; Master of Cere¬ monies; Master Commandant.

Md. Maryland.


M. D. Medicinae Doctor, Doctor of Medi¬ cine.

Mdse. Merchandise.

Me. Maine.

M. E. Methodist Episcopal; Military or Mechanical Engineer.

Messrs. Messieurs, Gentlemen.

Mex. Mexico, or Mexican.

Mich. Michigan.

Minn. Minnesota.

Miss. Mississippi.

Mile. Mademoiselle.

Mme. Madame, Madam.

Mo. Missouri; month.

Mont, or Mon. Montana.

M. P. Member of Parliament.

Mr. Mister.

Mrs. Mistress.

M. S. Master of Science; Memoriae sacrum, sacred to the memory.

MSS. Manuscripta, manuscripts.

N. B. New Brunswick; North Britain (that is, Scotland); North British (that is, Scotch) ; Nota bene, mark well, take notice.

N. C. North Carolina.

N. E. New England; northeast.

Neb. Nebraska.

Nev. Nevada.

N. H. New Hampshire.

N. J. Nev/ Jersey.

N. M. New Mexico.

No. or no. Numero, number.

N. Y. New York.

O. Ohio.

O. K. (Jocular). All right or correct.

Okl. Oklahoma.

Or. or Ore. Oregon.

O. T. Old Testament, oz. Onza, ounce.

P. or p. Page; part; participle; pondere, by weight.

Pa. Pennsylvania.

Per cent. Per centum, by the hundred.

Ph. B. Philosophiae Baccalaureus, Bach¬ elor of Philosophy.

Ph. D. Philosophiae Doctor, Doctor of Phi¬ losophy.

P. I. Philippine Islands.

P. M. Post meridiem, afternoon, evening; Past Midshipman; postmaster.

P. O. Post-office; Province of Ontario. Port. Portugal, or Portuguese.

pp. Pages.

Pres. President.

Prof. Professor.

pro tern. Pro tempore, for the time being.

Q. E. D. Quod erat demonstrandum, which was to be proved.

R. I. Rhode Island.

R. R. Railroad.

R. S. V. P. Repondez s’il vous plait, an¬ swer, if you please please reply.

Ry. Railway.

S. A. South America; South Australia.

S. C. South Carolina; Supreme Court.

Sc. B. Scientiae Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Science.

S. D. South Dakota.

Sr. Senior.




Syn. Synonym; synonymous.

Tenn. Tennessee.

Ter. Territory.

Tex. Texas.

Th. or Thurs. Thursday.

Treas. Treasurer.

Ult. Ultimo, last; of the last month.

U. S. A. United States of America; United States Army.

U. S. M. United States mail; United States Marines.

U. S. N. United States Navy.

U. S. S. United States Senate; United States ship.

Ut. Utah.

Va. Virginia.

viz. videlicet, to wit, namely.

vs. Versus, against; versiculo, in such a verse.

Vt. Vermont.

Wash. Washington.

W. C. T. U. Women’s Christian Temper¬ ance Union.

Wis. Wisconsin.

W. Va. West Virginia.

Wy. Wyoming.

Xmas. Christmas.

Y. M. C. A. Young Men’s Christian Associa¬ tion.

Y. P. S. C. E. Young People’s Society of Christian Endeavor.

Y. W. C. A. Young Women’s Christian As¬ sociation.

ABDICATION, properly the voluntary, but sometimes also the involuntary, resigna¬ tion of an office, especially that of a sover¬ eign. The more important abdications since the eighteenth century are the following:

Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia. June 4, 1802.

Charles IV of Spain . March 19, 1808.

Joseph Bonaparte of Naples . June 6, 1808.

Gustavus IV of Sweden . March 29, 1809.

Louis Bonaparte of Holland . July 2, 1810.

( April 14, 1814.

Napoleon of France . 1 T ofl

| June 22, 1815.

Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia. .March 13, 1821.

Charles X of France . August 2, 1830.

William I of Holland . October 7, 1840.

Louis Philippe of France. . .February 24, 1848.

Ferdinand of Austria . December 2, 1848.

Charles Albert of Sardinia . March 23, 1849.

Isabella II of Spain . June 25, 1870.

Amadeus I of Spain . February 11, 1873.

Abd-ul-Aziz of Turkey . May 30, 1876.

Abd-ul-Hamid II of Turkey. . . .April 27, 1909.

Nicholas II of Russia . March 15, 1917.

Constantine I of Greece . June 12, 1917.

Ferdinand I of Bulgaria . October 3, 1918.

Charles I of Austria . November 12, 1918.

William II of Germany. . . .November 28, 1918.

The English law, that the king cannot abdicate without the consent of Parliament, differs from that of most countries.

ABDO'MEN, in man, the lower cavity of the trunk, separated from the upper cavity,

or thorax, by the diaphragm and bounded below by the bones of the pelvis. It contains the intestines, liver, stomach, spleen, pan¬ creas, kidneys and other organs. A serous


1, 1, 1, 1. Muscles of the chest. 2, 2, 2, 2. Ribs. 3, 3, 3. Upper, middle and lower lobes of the right lung. 4, 4. Lobes of the left lung. 5. Right ventricle of the heart. 6. Left ventricle. 7. Right auricle. 8. Left auricle. 9. Pulmonary artery. 10. Aorta. 11. De¬ sending vena cava. 12. Trachea. 13. Oesoph¬ agus. 14, 14, 14, 14. Pleura. 15, 15. Dia¬ phragm. 16, 16. Right and left lobes of the liver. 17. Gall cyst. 18. Stomach. 19. Duode¬ num. 20. Ascending colon. 21. Transverse colon. 22. Descending colon. 23, 23. Small intestine. 24. Thoracic duct opening into the left subclavian vein. 25. Spleen.

membrane, called the peritoneum, lines the cavity and is reflected from it in such a way as to enclose the contents, giving them the necessary freedom of movement and at the same time keeping them in their proper posi¬ tion. This membrane is the seat of the disease peritonitis. The chief organs of the abdomen and chest are shown in the illustra¬ tion.

ABD-UL-HAMID II, ahbd ul ha meed' , (1842-1918), thirty-fourth sultan of the Ottoman Empire, son of Abd-ul-Medjid, suc¬ ceeded to the throne on the deposition of his brother, Murad V. The country at his ac¬ cession was in a disturbed condition, to which the declaration of war by Russia in 1877 came as a climax. The Turks were de-




feated, and the Empire might have been completely overthrown, had not the Euro¬ pean powers, fearing that Russia would grow too powerful, interfered in the peace negotiations. Turkey did, however, lose all claim to Bosnia, Bulgaria, Herzegovina, Montenegro, Rumania and Serbia. The sul¬ tan was also obliged to promise a reform in his treatment of his Christian subjects, but these promises he never fulfilled. However, by constantly playing the European nations against one another, he succeeded in warding off their interference. In 1908 he was com¬ pelled by the Young Turks to grant a con¬ stitution, and in April, 1909, he was deposed. See Young Turks.

A BECK'ET, Thomas. See Becket, Thomas a.

A'BEL, the name of the second son of Adam and Eve (Gen. IV, 2). Abel was a shepherd and, according to the biblical story, offered his sacrifices in such a spirit that they were regarded with greater favor by the Lord than were Cain’s. The latter, en¬ raged at this, slew his brother.

ABELARD, ab'e lard , Pierre, (1079- 1142), an illustrious French scholastic phil¬ osopher and theologian. He went to Paris at the age of twenty, where he established himself as a philosophical lecturer in 1113. Later he obtained the chair held by his former master. At this moment his repu¬ tation was greatest. From Rome, England and Germany, students hastened to listen to his eloquent logic, and he numbered among his followers the ablest men of his time. He secretly married Heloise, the beautiful niece of Fulbert, canon of Notre Dame, who in revenge put an end to their union. A council held at Soissons in 1121 condemned Abelard’s opinions on the Trinity as heret¬ ical, and soon after he withdrew to Nogent- on-the- Seine, where he built an oratory, and named it the Paraclete, or Comforter. In 1140 the Pope condemned him, as a heretic, to perpetual silence.

ABERCROMBIE, abercrum'by, James (1706-1781), a British soldier who com¬ manded the British forces in America during the French and Indian War. He was de¬ feated at Ticonderoga in 1758, and was therefore superseded the next year. After his return to England he was elected to Parliament.

ABERDEEN, John Campbell Gordon, Seventh Earl of (1847- ), a British

statesman. Originally a member of the con¬ servative party, in 1876 he joined the liberal party and cast his lot with Gladstone, who, in 1886, appointed liim lord lieutenant of Ireland. From 1893 to 1898 governor gen¬ eral of Canada, in 1905 he was again appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland, and retained this position until 1915.

ABERDEEN', Scotland, a royal burgh, capital of Aberdeenshire and the fourth largest Scottish city. The city is beautifully laid out and has streets which are regular and well-paved. It contains many notable buildings, chief among which are the mu¬ nicipal and county buildings, the Music Hall buildings, the Trades’ Hall, the Roman Catholic church, Cathedral of Saint Machar and a university. The university was estab¬ lished in 1860 by the union and incorpora¬ tion of the University and King’s College of Aberdeen and the Marischal College and University of Aberdeen. Its library con¬ tains 140,000 volumes. There are also numerous other colleges and schools, among which are Robert Gordon’s College, an art school and the Mechanics’ Institute. Aber¬ deen has an excellent harbor, which facili¬ tates trade and is responsible for the ex¬ tensive commerce. The chief industrial establishments include woolen, cotton, jute and linen factories, soap, candle, chemical and paper works, shipbuilding yards and granite works. Population, 1911, 163,891; 1921, 300,980.

ABERDEEN', S. D., the second city in size in the state (Sioux Falls being larger), founded in 1880, incorporated in 1882, and one of the first of American cities to adopt the commission form of government. It is the county seat of Brown County. It is 125 miles northeast of Pierre, the capital, and 290 miles west of Saint Paul. The city is a commercial center; artesian wells furnish power for manufacture. There is a state normal school in Aberdeen. Four rail¬ roads the Chicago & North Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & Saint Paul, the Great Northern and the Minneapolis and Saint Louis, serve the city. Population, 1910, 10,753; in 1920, 15,337.

ABERDEEN, Wash., was founded in 1888 and in 1920 was one of the most pros¬ perous cities of the state, being eighth in size. It is 150 miles southwest of Seattle, and fifty miles west of Olympia. The city is on Gray’s Harbor, sixteen miles from the




Pacific Ocean, and is known for its lum¬ bering industries. Transportation is pro¬ vided by the Northern Pacific and Chicago, Milwaukee & Saint Paul railroads and by the Oregon- Washington Railway & Naviga¬ tion Company.

Large government expenditures on Gray’s Harbor have greatly benefited the city. More lumber is shipped from here than from any other city in the world, it is claimed. It took front rank as a ship¬ building center in 1917. Population, 1910, 13,660; in 1920, 15,337. (Federal estimate).

ABERRA'TION, in physics, the term used to indicate the failure of rays of light to meet at a common focus when refracted by a lens or